Search the Design+Encyclopedia:

Design+Encyclopedia - Page 2

From Design+Encyclopedia, the free encyclopedia on good design, art, architecture, creativity, engineering and innovation.
Design Interview of the Day
Discover and learn more about the Design Interview of the Day, or Explore and see all past Design Interview of the Day honorees.

Discover | Explore Honorees

Asia Kingston
Asia Kingston's Work #118040
Articles Of Clothing Made Of Hides

Articles of clothing made of hides have been worn by humans for thousands of years. Hides are the skins of animals that have been treated and processed to make them suitable for clothing. The use of hides for clothing has been a necessity for many cultures, as they provide warmth and protection from the elements. Hides can be obtained from a variety of animals, including cows, sheep, goats, and deer, and the type of hide used depends on the climate and culture of the people who wear them. The process of making hides suitable for clothing involves several steps. First, the hide is cleaned and treated to remove any hair, flesh, or fat. Next, the hide is soaked in water to soften it and make it more pliable. This is followed by a process called tanning, which involves treating the hide with chemicals to make it more durable and resistant to decay. Finally, the hide is cut and sewn into the desired shape and style. Hides have been used to make a variety of clothing items, including jackets, pants, boots, and hats. In some cultures, hides are also used to make decorative items, such as bags and belts. The use of hides for clothing has also been an important part of many traditional ceremonies and rituals. Despite the availability of modern materials, hides continue to be used for clothing in many parts of the world. The durability and natural insulation provided by hides make them a popular choice for outdoor clothing and workwear. Additionally, the use of hides for clothing is often seen as a way to connect with traditional cultural practices and values.

hides, tanning, durability, traditional, cultural

Joshua Wilson

Aristide Maillol

Aristide Maillol was a renowned French sculptor and painter of the late 19th century and early 20th century. He was a masterful artist and his works have been widely celebrated for their beauty and grace. His most famous works include the monumental sculpture of The River, the bronze statue of Dina, and the marble sculpture of L'Amour. Maillol's sculptures evoke a sense of calm and contemplation, and his paintings often depict beautiful pastoral scenes. His works are some of the most celebrated in the history of French art.

Aristide Maillol, French sculptor, painter, art, sculpture, 19th century, 20th century

Anna Lombardi

Abrasive Gloves For Scrubbing Vegetables

Abrasive gloves for scrubbing vegetables are specialized gloves designed for cleaning and scrubbing vegetables. These gloves are made from materials that are tough and durable, such as nylon or polyester, and are coated with abrasive particles such as silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. The abrasive particles provide a rough surface that helps to remove dirt, grime, and other impurities from the surface of the vegetables. The gloves are designed to be worn on the hands and are used to scrub the vegetables under running water. The rough surface of the gloves helps to remove dirt and other impurities from the vegetables, while the water helps to wash away the debris. The gloves are particularly useful for cleaning vegetables that have a rough or uneven surface, such as potatoes, carrots, and beets. Abrasive gloves for scrubbing vegetables are an effective and efficient way to clean vegetables. They are easy to use and can be reused multiple times, making them an environmentally friendly option. Additionally, they are a cost-effective alternative to other vegetable cleaning products, such as brushes or sponges. In conclusion, abrasive gloves for scrubbing vegetables are a specialized type of glove designed for cleaning and scrubbing vegetables. They are made from durable materials and coated with abrasive particles to provide a rough surface that helps to remove dirt and other impurities from the surface of the vegetables. They are easy to use, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly.

Abrasive particles, Nylon, Polyester, Scrubbing, Vegetables

Michael Taylor

Autonomous Ships Design

Autonomous Ships Design refers to the development of systems and technologies to enable ships to perform their own navigation, guidance and control. These systems are based on artificial intelligence, living data networks and complex algorithms to enable automated decision-making. Autonomous Ships Design includes features such as obstacle avoidance and autonomous navigation, dynamic positioning, real-time route optimization and efficient route selection. Examples of these technologies include autonomous unmanned maritime systems, unmanned surface vessels and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Autonomous Ships Design, Navigation, Guidance, Control, Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Maritime Systems.

Emma Bernard

Allan Mitelman

Allan Mitelman is a renowned Australian artist best known for his vivid abstract expressionist installations. His art is deeply rooted in his native culture and often explores his relationship with his Aboriginal heritage. Mitelman is highly regarded for his ability to combine elements of traditional Indigenous art with modern artistic techniques. His works include large-scale interactive installations such as the award-winning 'Song of the Wild' and 'Ochre Garden'. He also has an impressive catalogue of paintings, sculptures and ceramics, which have been exhibited in cities around the world. Mitelman's art has been highly praised by critics and art lovers alike and has won numerous awards, including the Australian National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Awards.

Australian art, Allan Mitelman, aboriginal, expressionist, installations.

Mei Wang


An amphitheater is a large, open-air venue designed to host a variety of events, including theatrical performances, concerts, sporting events, and public gatherings. The word amphitheater is derived from the Greek words amphi, meaning on both sides, and theatron, meaning place for viewing. This term has evolved over time to refer to any large entertainment venue, such as a stadium or concert hall. Amphitheaters typically have a circular or oval shape, with tiered seating arranged around a central stage area. The seating is designed to provide a clear view of the performance from any angle, and the acoustics are carefully engineered to enhance the sound quality. Many amphitheaters are designed to take advantage of natural features, such as hillsides or valleys, to create a natural amphitheater effect. The history of amphitheaters dates back to ancient Greece, where they were used for theatrical performances and other public events. The most famous ancient amphitheater is the Colosseum in Rome, which was used for gladiatorial contests and other spectacles. Today, there are many modern amphitheaters around the world, ranging from small community theaters to massive outdoor arenas that can accommodate tens of thousands of people. One unique aspect of amphitheaters is their ability to create a sense of community and shared experience. The circular seating arrangement allows people to see and interact with each other, creating a sense of camaraderie and shared excitement. This communal atmosphere is part of what makes amphitheaters such a popular venue for public events.

venue, circular, communal, acoustics, history

Joseph Edwards

Audio Analysis

Audio Analysis is a powerful tool for designers in the creative industries, allowing them to uncover unique patterns and relationships in audio data. By analyzing frequency and amplitude data, designers can uncover hidden waveforms, melodies and textures which can be used to add new dimensions to their designs. Audio Analysis also helps designers to create custom soundscapes and music from sampled elements, creating pieces of art that are uniquely their own. Additionally, audio analysis can be used to create interactive experiences, such as virtual reality and augmented reality applications. Through audio analysis, designers can detect sound events in a user's environment and respond to them in real time. This allows for an immersive experience that can be tailored to a user's needs. Audio Analysis also offers a range of applications for automated systems, such as speech recognition, sound classification, and text-to-speech conversion.

Audio Analysis, Digital Signal Processing, Feature Extraction, Speech Recognition, Music Information Retrieval, Event Detection.

Federica Costa

Abd Al-Samad

Abd Al-Samad was a prominent figure in the field of Islamic art and culture, known for his innovative works that combined traditional Arabic poetry and symbolism with philosophical themes. His influence on the development of the arts can still be seen today, particularly in the field of design and literature. Abd Al-Samad's works were characterized by an intricate and elaborate use of symbolism, and a focus on the beauty of the written word. One of Abd Al-Samad's most celebrated works is the Book of Secrets, a collection of poems and essays that explore the mysteries of the universe and the human experience. The book is notable for its use of allegory and symbolism, which allows readers to interpret the text in a variety of ways. Another important work by Abd Al-Samad is the Book of the Shrine, which explores the spiritual significance of holy places and the rituals associated with them. This work is notable for its use of mystical imagery and its exploration of the relationship between the physical and spiritual worlds. Abd Al-Samad's influence on Islamic art and culture can also be seen in his contributions to calligraphy, which he saw as a form of spiritual expression. His calligraphy was characterized by a fluid, flowing style that emphasized the beauty of the written word. He also developed a unique system of notation for Arabic music, which allowed musicians to notate and preserve their compositions for future generations. Overall, Abd Al-Samad was a visionary artist and thinker who made significant contributions to the development of Islamic art and culture. His works continue to inspire and influence artists and scholars today.

Abd Al-Samad, Islamic art, symbolism, calligraphy, Book of Secrets, Book of the Shrine, Arabic music

David Anderson

Adolphe Monticelli

Adolphe Monticelli is often considered one of the most prominent French artists of the 19th century. A renowned post-impressionist, Monticelli's works, noted for their unique expressionistic qualities, showcase his masterful use of color, light and technique. His timeless paintings hold a special place in art history, renowned for his hybrid use of Impressionism and Romanticism. Many of his works, such as 'The Boaters', 'Olive Trees in Provençe' and 'Vase of Flowers' remain hailed for their beautiful composition.

Post-Impressionist, 19th Century French Art, Monticelli, Paintings, Impressionism, Romanticism.

Giovanna Mancini

Aelbrecht Bouts

Aelbrecht Bouts was a pioneer of the Northern Renaissance, renowned for his innovative style and iconic paintings. He is best known for his masterpieces such as the ‘Adoration of the Magi’, ‘The Last Supper’, and ‘The Martyrdom of St Erasmus’. His works featured a strong sense of realism and emotion, and he often focused on religious themes. He is one of the most celebrated painters of the 15th century, with his works having a long-lasting legacy in the world of art.

Aelbrecht Bouts, Northern Renaissance, iconic paintings, Adoration of the Magi, Last Supper, Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, realism, emotion, religious themes, 15th century art

Anna Lombardi

Alan B. Guyan

Alan B. Guyan is Director of Manufacturing Innovation for Under Armour's Manufacturing Innovation Center, Lighthouse. He is a renowned expert on all aspects of Additive Manufacturing, Subtractive Manufacturing, and 3D developments, pushing the boundaries of design to improve the performance and product experience of footwear, apparel, and accessories. His groundbreaking design achievements include launching the first-ever 3D printed training shoe, UA Architech, and developing the revolutionary MagZip one-handed assist zipper bottom stop. His work has been recognized by prominent awards in the industry, cementing his position as an innovative leader in the field.

Alan B. Guyan

Emma Bernard

Anton Seder

Anton Seder was one of the most influential Austrian artists of his time, and his works still resonate with viewers today. He was renowned for his detailed and highly evocative landscapes, still lifes and portraits, which sought to capture the essence of a moment in time. His mastery of light and color, as well as his ability to express emotion through his paintings, made his works stand out from those of his contemporaries. He was also an innovator, often experimenting with new techniques, such as in his use of oil on canvas. Seder was an avid traveler, and his work often reflects his passion for exploration and discovery. He was able to bring his observations of different environments to life on the canvas, providing viewers with a window into the world he saw. His works remain a source of inspiration for designers, artists and creatives alike, and his legacy continues to be celebrated in the art world.

Anton Seder, Austrian artist, landscape, still life, portrait, oil on canvas, light and color, emotion, exploration, discovery, creativity, inspiration.

Claudia Rossetti

Allen International

Allen International is a globally recognized design consultancy that specializes in financial services and telecommunications. With over 400 clients around the world, their reputation for crafting innovative solutions that increase profitability is unparalleled. Their team of experienced professionals draws on a wide range of design disciplines, from visual design to user experience to product design, to provide cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing solutions that are tailored to their clients' specific needs and requirements. What sets Allen International apart is their deep understanding of individual markets and cultural insights. They take a localized approach to every project, ensuring that their designs are not only visually appealing but also resonate with the local audience. Their commitment to providing cost-efficient design solutions based on robust strategies is further evidenced by their numerous industry awards, which symbolize the level of quality and detail they bring to every project. Allen International's process-driven approach to every project enables their clients to achieve their goals and objectives through creative solutions. They have a strong focus on collaboration, working closely with their clients to understand their unique needs and provide them with solutions that meet their goals. Their expertise in financial services and telecommunications is unmatched, making them world leaders in strategic branding and retail design. In summary, Allen International is a globally recognized design consultancy that specializes in financial services and telecommunications. Their deep understanding of individual markets and cultural insights, combined with their process-driven approach and commitment to providing cost-efficient solutions, sets them apart from the competition. They are world leaders in strategic branding and retail design, and their numerous industry awards are a testament to the level of quality and detail they bring to every project.

design consultancy, financial services, telecommunications, process-driven approach, cost-efficient solutions

Kevin Williams

Art In Panama

The art of Panama has a long and rich history that is reflective of the diverse cultural influences that have shaped the country. A unique blend of indigenous, Spanish, African, and modern influences have been seen in Panama’s art from the colonial period to the present day. During the colonial period, religious art was prominent, often featuring themes of conquest, colonization, and martyrdom. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the art of Panama was heavily influenced by the European Avant Garde movement, with artists experimenting with abstract, surrealist, and cubist styles. More recently, contemporary art has become increasingly prominent in Panama, with artists exploring themes of identity and social justice in their works. Furthermore, Panama’s traditional crafts, such as basket weaving and pottery, continue to be highly valued by the local population. In conclusion, the art of Panama reflects the country’s diverse cultural influences and continues to evolve to meet the needs of a modern world.

Indigenous, Spanish, African, Avant Garde, Contemporary, Crafts, Abstract, Surrealist, Cubist, Identity, Social Justice.

Martina Ferrari

Anna Kövecses

Anna Kövecses is a highly acclaimed Hungarian illustrator and designer whose captivating and emotive artwork has earned her international recognition. Her unique ability to capture the essence of her subjects through her drawings has made her work instantly recognizable to audiences worldwide. Anna's portfolio includes a wide range of mediums, from painting to animation, and her vivid use of color and intricate detail draws the eye, inviting viewers to explore the story behind each piece. Her artistic style is often described as dreamy and whimsical, intertwined with a strong sense of nostalgia. Anna's work has been featured in numerous books, magazines, and websites, including The New York Times, The London Times, and The Huffington Post. Her illustrations have also been showcased in galleries and museums around the world, where they have been admired and appreciated by a wide variety of audiences. Anna's commitment to her craft and her Hungarian roots is evident in her work, which celebrates her culture and heritage. Despite her world-wide fame, Anna remains true to her roots, creating illustrations that capture the spirit of her homeland and celebrate Hungarian culture. Her dedication to her craft and her passion for experimentation continue to push creative boundaries and explore new forms of expression. Anna Kövecses is an artist to watch, as she continues to captivate audiences with her unique and emotive artwork.

Hungarian, illustrator, designer, emotive, artwork

John Williams

Alfred Giles

Alfred Giles was a renowned American architect who made significant contributions to the field of architecture during the 19th century. He was known for his proficiency in popular architectural styles of the time, such as Gothic Revival and Victorian, and his works included a variety of structures ranging from residential homes to churches. Giles was a true visionary in his field and was always looking for ways to innovate and push the boundaries of creativity and craftsmanship. His passion for architecture was evident in every structure he built, and his legacy lives on in his works which are still celebrated today. One of the key aspects of Giles' work was his attention to detail. He was known for his intricate designs and masterful use of light and shadow, which created an ethereal atmosphere in his structures. His works, such as the Old West End San Antonio Historic District, St. Mark's Episcopal Church in San Antonio, and the Smithson-Saunders House in Austin, remain admired for their beauty and timeless appeal. Giles' influence is still felt in the design world today, inspiring designers to create structures that are both aesthetically pleasing and structurally sound. Another important aspect of Giles' work was his dedication to creating structures of lasting beauty. He was passionate about his craft and believed that architecture should be both functional and beautiful. His works were designed to stand the test of time and remain relevant even today. Giles' legacy as an architect is a testament to his dedication to his craft and his commitment to creating structures that are both beautiful and functional. In conclusion, Alfred Giles was a pioneer of 19th century American architecture who left an indelible mark on the field. His works are still celebrated today for their beauty, timeless appeal, and attention to detail. Giles' legacy as an architect is a testament to his dedication to his craft and his commitment to creating structures that are both beautiful and functional.

Alfred Giles, American architect, Gothic Revival, Victorian, attention to detail, ethereal atmosphere, lasting beauty, dedication, functional and beautiful, legacy

Thomas Jackson

Alternate Hair Length

Alternate Hair Length is a common technique used by fan artists to differentiate their fan art from the source material. It involves changing the length of a characters hair to make them more distinguishable from the original design. Artists may make the hair longer, shorter, or add elements such as bangs. This can also be used to make a character have a more unique look, by giving them a different hair style from the original. Hair length can be manipulated in a variety of ways, from lightening or darkening the hue, to adding or removing curls. It is a great way for fan artists to express their own creative vision with a beloved character.

Character customization, fanart, cosplay, hairstyle, hair color, fanfiction.

Taro Yamada


An abutter is a term used in real estate and property law to refer to a person or entity that owns property that is adjacent to another property. The term is often used in legal documents, such as deeds, zoning ordinances, and building permits, to describe the relationship between two properties. The rights and responsibilities of an abutter can vary depending on the specific circumstances of the case, including the location of the properties, the intended use of the properties, and any applicable zoning regulations or building codes. One of the most important aspects of being an abutter is the right to access shared resources, such as water, utilities, and walkways. Abutters are entitled to use these resources, but they must also respect the rights of the adjoining property owner and not interfere with their use of the resources. Additionally, abutters must comply with any local regulations or legal restrictions that may apply to their property, including zoning ordinances and building codes. Another key aspect of being an abutter is the potential impact of neighboring properties on the value and use of one's own property. For example, if a neighboring property is used for a noisy or disruptive activity, such as a factory or a nightclub, it could have a negative impact on the value of the abutter's property. In some cases, abutters may have legal recourse to address these issues, such as filing a nuisance lawsuit or seeking a zoning variance to restrict the use of the neighboring property. Overall, being an abutter can be a complex and challenging role, requiring a thorough understanding of property law and local regulations. However, it is also an important part of ensuring that property owners can enjoy their rights and protect their investments.

real estate, property law, adjacent property, shared resources, zoning regulations, building codes, property value, legal recourse, nuisance lawsuit, zoning variance

Jason Moore

Art Of Algeria

The visual arts of Algeria have been shaped by its rich and complex history, and the combination of cultural, social and technological influences has enabled the development of a unique and vibrant art scene in the region. During the French colonial period, Algerian art was subject to the influence of French academic styles, which was further reinforced by the country's entry into the international art world in the 1960s. Since then, modern and contemporary art in Algeria has been characterized by a variety of styles and movements, often drawing on traditional motifs and techniques. In addition, the development of digital media and technology has enabled the emergence of a new generation of Algerian artists, who have used the medium to explore new forms of expression and engagement.

Abstract, Expressionism, Realism, Heritage, Digital.

Veronica Santoro

Aerial Photography

Aerial photography refers to the technique of capturing photographs from an elevated position above the ground, typically utilizing aircraft, drones, balloons, satellites, or other airborne platforms to achieve a bird's-eye view of landscapes, urban areas, and various geographical features. This form of photography is distinguished by its unique perspective, offering views that are unattainable from ground level and providing comprehensive visual information that can be used for a wide range of applications including mapping, urban planning, environmental studies, surveillance, and artistic endeavors. Unlike traditional photography, which is conducted from the photographer's immediate surroundings and is limited by the photographer's physical location and perspective, aerial photography transcends these limitations by elevating the vantage point, thus enabling the capture of expansive areas and detailed topographical data that would otherwise be inaccessible or difficult to document comprehensively. The historical evolution of aerial photography dates back to the 19th century, with significant advancements during the World Wars when it was extensively used for reconnaissance purposes. Over time, the integration of technological innovations such as digital imaging, GPS, and advanced drone technology has profoundly expanded its capabilities and applications, making it an indispensable tool in contemporary design, planning, and analysis. The aesthetic and cultural significance of aerial photography also cannot be understated; it has transformed our visual culture by providing a new spatial understanding of the world, influencing not only scientific and technical fields but also art and cinema, where it has been used to create stunning visuals and convey powerful narratives. The future of aerial photography promises further integration with digital technologies, potentially incorporating augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) to offer even more immersive experiences.

drones, topographical data, bird's-eye view, digital imaging, environmental studies

Michael Thompson

Asia Kingston

Asia Kingston is an innovative Hong Kong-based design and license company that has been providing the world with high-quality designs and products since 2008. Their unique designs are globally recognized, and they specialize in reimagining industry-leading licensee brands. Asia Kingston is committed to crafting designs that are not only beautiful and stylish, but also highly functional and efficient. With the help of cutting-edge technology and with design concepts originating mostly in Europe, Asia Kingston has taken the design world by storm. Their designs have been showcased in major international trade shows all over the world, from Shanghai to Las Vegas and from Milano to Frankfurt. Notable brands and partnerships to have collaborated with Asia Kingston include JEEP, Kawasaki, Pininfarina, Maserati, FIAT 500, Momo Design, Hot Wheels, and Barbie. Asia Kingston has become a standout in the design and license industry, with many of their designs being recognised for their excellence and innovation.

Asia Kingston

Emma Bernard

Antoine Bonnefoy

Antoine Bonnefoy is an outstanding example of a contemporary artist who has achieved international recognition for his work. His works explore the complexities of the human condition, and he often draws upon his own experiences to create works that are meaningful to a broad audience. He has a unique style of blending the creative elements of painting, sculpture and photography to create powerful and accessible expressions. His works often focus on the subtle nuances of emotion, and he is able to capture the essential nature of experience in his artwork. His vibrant colors and strong sense of composition make his works stand out, and have made him a highly sought-after figure in the design world. Bonnefoy's work is a great source of inspiration for designers and art appreciators, demonstrating how art can be used to effectively communicate ideas and emotions.

Antoine Bonnefoy, French Artist, Painting, Sculpture, Photography, Human Experience, Vibrant Colors, Composition.

Claudia Rossetti


Agriculture is the science, art, and practice of cultivating plants and livestock for food, fuel, fiber, and other products to sustain and enhance human life. It involves the domestication, improvement, and breeding of plants and animals, as well as the preparation of soil for crop production, weed and pest control, irrigation and drainage, crop rotation, and harvesting. It also involves the raising of livestock, including feed production and management, animal husbandry, and marketing of livestock and livestock products.

Agricultural production, crop rotation, animal husbandry, soil preparation, pest management, harvesting, livestock production, irrigation, and drainage.

Giulia Esposito

Adventist University Centre of São Paulo

The Adventist University Centre of São Paulo, known in its native Portuguese as Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo (UNASP), is a prominent educational institution located in the bustling city of São Paulo, Brazil. This university stands as a beacon of higher education within the country, offering a diverse array of courses and programs across various fields of study. The foundation of UNASP is deeply rooted in the principles and values of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, reflecting a commitment to holistic education that encompasses not only academic excellence but also moral and spiritual growth. Over the years, UNASP has evolved to become a comprehensive center for learning, catering to a wide range of academic interests and professional aspirations. The university is organized into several departments, each focusing on specific areas of knowledge and expertise. The Department of Applied Social Science offers programs in Accountancy, Administration, Advertising and Publicity, Communication Studies, Journalism, Law, Radio and Television Broadcasting, and Social Sciences. These programs are designed to equip students with the necessary skills and knowledge to excel in various fields within the social sciences, preparing them for careers in media, business, law, and more. In the realm of Arts and Humanities, UNASP provides courses in Arts and Humanities, History, Pedagogy, Psychology, and Theology. This department fosters a deep appreciation for human culture and thought, encouraging students to explore the complexities of human behavior, historical events, and religious beliefs. The emphasis on pedagogy and psychology prepares future educators and mental health professionals with a solid foundation in their respective fields. The Department of Biological Sciences offers a program in Biology, catering to students interested in the natural sciences and the study of life. This program lays the groundwork for careers in research, environmental conservation, and healthcare, among others. The Engineering Department at UNASP includes programs in Architecture, Construction Engineering, Production Engineering, and Town Planning, providing a comprehensive education in designing, building, and maintaining the physical and naturally built environment. Health Science is another critical area of focus at UNASP, with programs in Nursing, Nutrition, Physical Education, Physical Therapy, and more. These programs are dedicated to preparing students for careers in healthcare and wellness, emphasizing the importance of physical and nutritional well-being. The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science offers a range of programs, including Computer Networks, Computer Science, Data Processing, Information Technology, Mathematics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Mathematics Education, and Systems Analysis. These programs address the growing demand for skilled professionals in the fields of information technology and computational sciences. Furthermore, the Department of Modern Language and Arts provides programs in Modern Languages and Music, enriching students' understanding of global cultures and artistic expression. The Translation and Interpretation department offers specialized training for students pursuing careers in multilingual communication and cultural exchange. UNASP also boasts a robust offering of graduate studies, including programs in Business Administration, Education, Educational Administration, Environmental Management, Health Administration, Health Sciences, Mathematics Education, Nursing, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Physical Education, Physical Therapy, Physiology, and Public Health. These advanced programs are designed to provide students with a deeper understanding of their chosen fields, fostering research, leadership, and innovation. The Adventist University Centre of São Paulo stands as a testament to the enduring value of faith-based education, integrating academic rigor with ethical and spiritual development. Its comprehensive curriculum, diverse departments, and commitment to holistic education make UNASP a distinguished institution within Brazil's higher education landscape.

Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo

Peter Smith

Azahara Morales Vera

Azahara Morales Vera is a creative force to be reckoned with. She is a true pioneer in the field of industrial design, pushing the boundaries of design to create unique and innovative works that captivate and inspire. Her designs feature a perfect balance between form and function, and her attention to detail is evident in every piece she creates. Azahara is constantly exploring new ways to express her creativity and her passion for design has earned her recognition and awards both in her home country and abroad. Azahara is an inspiring example of the power of creativity and the potential of industrial design, and she is a role model for aspiring designers everywhere.

Industrial Design, Azahara Morales Vera, Spain, Creativity, Innovation, Design Awards.

Federica Costa

Apparel Product Development Principles

Apparel product development principles are essential for fashion designers to bring their creative vision to life. Designers must understand the importance of selecting the right materials, colours and textures to create a garment that is aesthetically pleasing and meets the needs of the intended consumer. Designers must also consider the cost of production, the fit of the garment, the quality of the materials and the functionality of the garment. Furthermore, designers must be aware of current trends in fashion and the marketability of the garment, in order to create a product that is attractive to their target market.

Apparel, fashion, design, product, development, principles, materials, cost, fit, quality, trends, marketability.

Federica Costa

Architecture In Journalism

Architecture in Journalism refers to the coverage and reporting of architecture and design in media outlets. It encompasses printed and online publications, television programs, documentaries, podcasts, and social media platforms. The role of architecture in journalism is to inform and educate audiences about the built environment, design philosophy, construction technology, and cultural heritage. To create impactful journalism in architecture, the following criteria should be considered: 1. Accuracy: Reports should be well-researched and based on reliable sources, including experts, architects, and scholars. 2. Accessibility: The language and tone of the reporting should be clear and concise, avoiding complex terms and jargon that can alienate readers. 3. Visual Appeal: Architecture is a visual discipline; therefore, the use of images, graphics, and videos to complement the text is essential. High-quality photographs that highlight the architectural details are great additions to the text. 4. Diversity: Architecture journalism should be inclusive and embrace diversity, including people of all races, cultures, and backgrounds. 5. Relevance: Reports should be timely and relevant to current issues and trends in the architecture industry while considering the broader contexts of the world. Architecture journalism is a vital aspect of society today, increasing awareness and appreciation of architecture as a discipline. It provides critical insights into the built environment, inspiring future designs that are functional, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing.

Architecture, Journalism, Design, Media, Reporting

William Robinson

Automotive Machine Vision

Automotive Machine Vision (AMV) is a field of engineering that combines computer vision, sensing technologies, and robotics to create a system capable of interpreting and analyzing images and data from cameras, sensors, and other sources. This technology is used to assist designers in taking measurements, performing quality control processes, and recognizing and responding to objects in their environment. AMV techniques are used to detect and recognize vehicles, road signs, traffic patterns, and objects, as well as inspecting automotive components and surfaces. Designers can leverage the power of AMV to create more accurate and dynamic designs, while also ensuring the safety and effectiveness of their projects in the automotive environment. Furthermore, AMV can be used to create 3D models of the environment, allowing for an even more realistic design experience.

Image Processing, Computer Vision, Automation, Robotics, Sensors, Machine Learning.

Eleonora Barbieri


Architectural arcades, which originated in the mid-nineteenth century, are structures of tall, continuous, multi-story rows of columns or arches that support a roof. They are often lined with shops, cafes and other retail establishments, often creating a sheltered pathway for pedestrians. Arcades can be found in a variety of settings, from historic cities to suburban shopping centers. While the original form of arcade was a shopping mall of sorts, modern arcades often incorporate a mix of entertainment and retail, allowing for a much more relaxed shopping experience. Arcades often feature a variety of attractions including amusement parks, bowling alleys, video arcades, and even movie theaters.

Verticality, Aesthetic, Urban, Shopping, Entertainment.

Mark Wilson

Alec Soth

Alec Soth is an award-winning American photographer, whose work has been admired for its use of storytelling to convey the poetics of everyday life. His renowned photographic series include Sleeping by the Mississippi, Niagara and Broken Manual, which were all nominated for the prestigious Deutsche Börse Photography Prize. With an impressive portfolio of monographs, exhibitions and editorial assignments, Soth is recognised as an accomplished and influential figure in the art world.

Alec Soth, American photographer, award-winning, Sleeping by the Mississippi, Niagara, Broken Manual, Deutsche Börse Photography Prize, monographs, exhibitions, editorial assignments

Valeria Marino

Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

Aircraft Manufacturing Processes involve a complex set of techniques to create the aircraft from its individual components. During the design phase, engineers and designers must account for the aircraft’s physical and aerodynamic properties, as well as its performance and safety requirements. This is where creativity and artistry are essential, as the designer must be able to visualize the aircraft’s purpose, mission, and design goals. Once the design phase is complete, components are cut, formed, and machined to precise specifications, and then assembled into the aircraft’s structure. Following assembly, inspections and testing are conducted to ensure the aircraft meets safety and performance requirements. It is also important to consider the environmental impact of the aircraft manufacturing process, to ensure that the aircraft is safe and efficient to fly.

Aircraft design, engineering, production, testing, inspection, safety, performance, environment, assembly, components.

Federica Costa

August Mylius

August Mylius is a renowned German artist whose works are praised for their intricate detail, extraordinary technique and superb artistry. His canvases are characterized by harmonious composition and a unique use of color that bring to life the emotion and poetic beauty of the landscape they depict. Acclaimed for his ability to illuminate the soul of the environment in each painting, August Mylius is also celebrated for his mastery of portraiture. Notable works by this prolific artist include 'Blue Mountain', 'Summer Reflections' and 'Farewell'.

August Mylius, German artist, painting, landscape, portraiture, technique, artistry

Giovanna Mancini

Alexander Payne

Alexander Payne is an inspiration to aspiring designers, artists, and creatives alike. His innovative approach to design and architecture has been praised by critics and peers alike, and his work has been featured in many publications, museums, and galleries around the world. Payne has a unique eye for detail, which he applies to all of his works, creating spaces that are both aesthetically pleasing and highly functional. He is also known for his ability to create sets for films, as well as designing concert venues, store interiors, and other public spaces. Payne has a knack for finding the perfect balance between modern and classic design, which has earned him the respect of many in the design industry. His attention to detail, creativity, and innovation are the main reasons why his work continues to be celebrated and admired.

Alexander Payne, design, art, architecture, creativity, innovation.

Federica Costa

Art In Central African Republic

The art of Central African Republic has a rich and varied history, stemming from the region's long-standing social and cultural traditions. Art in this region has been shaped by a number of factors, including the influence of colonialism, the emergence of new technologies, and the growth of a vibrant contemporary art scene. Historically, art in Central African Republic has been associated with traditional forms of sculpture and woodcarving, which were used to commemorate important events and to express religious beliefs. In recent decades, however, new forms of art have emerged, including modern and abstract painting, photography, and multimedia installations. This has been accompanied by a shift in focus towards more socially and politically engaged art, which has been used to address issues of identity, culture, and social justice. Technological advancements have also had an impact on the development of art in the Central African Republic, allowing for the wider dissemination of artworks and for increased access to digital tools and resources.

Central African Republic, art, history, technology, culture, contemporary.

Veronica Santoro

Alessandro Magris

Alessandro Magris is a prominent Italian artist who has made a name for himself in the contemporary art scene. He was born in Venice in 1967 and studied at the prestigious Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia. Magris is best known for his large-scale oil paintings that are figurative in nature and express emotions through the use of vivid colors and exploration of light and texture. His works have been showcased in art galleries across Italy and have been featured in major exhibitions in the United States, Germany, and other European countries. Magris's style is characterized by his ability to capture the essence of his subjects, whether it be a landscape or a human figure, through the use of bold brushstrokes and intense colors. His works often have a dreamlike quality, with the use of light and shadow creating a sense of depth and atmosphere. Magris's paintings are not only visually stunning but also convey a sense of emotion and mood that draws the viewer in. In addition to his paintings, Magris has also worked on various other projects, including sculpture and installation art. He has been awarded several prizes for his contribution to contemporary art and continues to be a respected figure in the art world.

Alessandro Magris, Italian artist, large-scale oil paintings, figurative, vivid colors, exploration of light and texture, dreamlike quality, emotion, sculpture, installation art, contemporary art

Eric Smith

Art In South Africa

Art in South Africa has been an integral part of the country's culture since before the dawn of the colonial era. During the pre-colonial period, the art of the indigenous people of the area was characterized by a strong sense of symbolism and ritual. The art of the Khoisan and Bantu peoples, for example, was heavily influenced by their spiritual beliefs, with traditional beadwork and wood carving featuring prominently in their art. As European settlers began to arrive in the region, their art began to influence local art, with the introduction of oil painting and the use of imported materials such as canvas. During the colonial period, European styles of painting and sculpture largely dominated the art of South Africa, with the most prominent artists being those who had received formal training in Europe. During the apartheid era, art was used as a form of protest and resistance to the oppressive regime, with a number of political art movements emerging during this time. In the present day, South African art continues to be heavily influenced by its diverse cultural heritage, with a strong emphasis on contemporary art, street art, and digital art.

Colonialism, Apartheid, Protest, Multiculturalism, Digital.

Martina Ferrari

Anton Neudörffer

Anton Neudörffer is a German artist known for his distinct and expressive style of painting. His works are often characterized by a fusion of realism and abstraction, creating a unique visual language that is both captivating and impactful. His paintings often feature a combination of landscapes, still life, and portraiture, creating a sense of depth and emotion. His works have been featured in multiple exhibitions, residencies, and awards, and have been celebrated by admirers all over the world. His most iconic pieces include “In the City,” “The Garden,” and “The Village Market.”

Neudörffer, painting, art, realism, abstraction, Germany.

Eleonora Barbieri


Aestheticism is a philosophical belief that beauty should be valued over moral and practical considerations. As such, this concept has been translated differently in a number of languages. In French, it is known as esthétique; in Spanish, estética; in German, Ästhetik; in Spanish, estética; in Italian, estetica; in Russian, Эстетика; in Mandarin, 美学; in Japanese, 美学; and in Hebrew, אסתטיקה. Furthermore, the idea of Aestheticism can be found in other languages, such as Dutch (aesthetiek), Korean (미학), Portuguese (estética), and Polish (estetyka).

Aestheticism French Esthétique Spanish Estética German Ästhetik Italian Estetica Russian Эстетика Mandarin 美学 Japanese 美学 Hebrew אסתטיקה Dutch Aesthetiek Korean 미학 Portuguese Estética Polish Estetyka

Harris Awan

Abrasive Preparations For Use On The Body

Abrasive preparations for use on the body are products that are designed to exfoliate and remove dead skin cells from the surface of the skin. These preparations typically contain abrasive particles that are suspended in a cream or gel base, and are applied to the skin using a circular motion. The abrasive particles work to physically scrub away dead skin cells, revealing smoother, brighter, and more youthful-looking skin. There are many different types of abrasive particles that can be used in these preparations, including natural substances like ground walnut shells, sugar, and salt, as well as synthetic materials like microbeads and polyethylene. The size and shape of the particles can also vary, with some products containing larger, more coarse particles for a more intense exfoliation, while others contain smaller, gentler particles for a more mild exfoliation. Abrasive preparations for use on the body are typically used once or twice a week, depending on the individual's skin type and the intensity of the exfoliation. It is important to follow the instructions on the product label carefully, as overuse of these products can lead to irritation and damage to the skin. Overall, abrasive preparations for use on the body are a popular and effective way to improve the texture and appearance of the skin. By removing dead skin cells and promoting cell turnover, these products can help to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, improve skin tone and texture, and promote a brighter, more youthful-looking complexion.

exfoliate, dead skin cells, abrasive particles, microbeads, polyethylene

Daniel Lopez

Academic Design Competition

Some design competitions can be considered “Academic”; as they could contribute to the Academic score calculation for participants in art-related fields. For competitions to be considered, the basic two requirements are having a professional jury, and a publication. Furthermore, organizers information or the number of years the competition organized could be relevant in addition to the entry evaluation methodologies or overall brand value of the competition. It is important for a competition to be considered academic, especially for design awards since institutions could cover entry fees to academic level competitions.

Academic Design Competition

Onur Cobanli

Aircraft Structural Optimization

Aircraft Structural Optimization offers designers and engineers a powerful tool to create more efficient and effective aircraft structures. By utilizing computer-aided analysis and simulation techniques, it is possible to identify areas of the aircraft structure where weight can be reduced without compromising its strength and stiffness. This process of optimization typically involves developing an integrated model of the aircraft structure and then analyzing and optimizing it to improve its performance. Through the use of finite element analysis, topology optimization algorithms and finite difference methods, it is possible to identify areas of the structure where weight can be reduced, stiffness increased or solid parts replaced with lighter, yet strong honeycomb structures. In this way, aircraft structural optimization can help designers and engineers create lighter, stronger and more efficient aircraft designs, enabling them to create safer, more efficient and cost effective aircraft.

Aircraft, Structural, Optimization, Design, Simulation, Analysis, Strength, Stiffness, Weight, Finite Element, Topology, Algorithms, Finite Difference, Honeycomb, Efficiency, Cost, Effective.

Claudia Rossetti

Axle Assemblies For Vehicles

Axle assemblies are fundamental components of vehicles that are responsible for transmitting power from the engine to the wheels. They are mechanical devices that connect the wheels to the vehicle's body and provide support and stability to the vehicle's weight. Axle assemblies are typically made up of several parts, including the axle shaft, differential, and wheel bearings. They come in different types and configurations, depending on the vehicle's design, weight, and intended use. The axle shaft is the primary component of the axle assembly and is responsible for transmitting power from the engine to the wheels. It is a long, cylindrical shaft that runs from the differential to the wheel hub. The differential is a gear assembly that allows the wheels to rotate at different speeds while still receiving power from the engine. The wheel bearings are the components that allow the wheels to rotate smoothly and with minimal friction. Axle assemblies can be classified based on their configuration and the type of vehicle they are designed for. Rear axle assemblies are typically found in rear-wheel-drive vehicles and are responsible for transmitting power to the rear wheels. Front axle assemblies, on the other hand, are found in front-wheel-drive vehicles and are responsible for transmitting power to the front wheels. All-wheel-drive vehicles have both front and rear axle assemblies, which work together to provide power to all four wheels. In addition to their primary function of transmitting power, axle assemblies also play a crucial role in the vehicle's handling and stability. They provide support and stability to the vehicle's weight, which helps to prevent the vehicle from tipping over during sharp turns or sudden maneuvers. They also help to absorb shocks and vibrations from the road, which improves the vehicle's ride comfort and reduces wear and tear on other components.

axle shaft, differential, wheel bearings, rear axle, front axle

John Taylor

Andy Smith

Andy Smith is a celebrated British illustrator whose works have been widely admired since the mid-1980s. His distinct style of combining vibrant colors, simple shapes and playful compositions, has made him a beloved figure in the world of design, art and creativity. He is renowned for his iconic illustrations of the Tower Bridge and other London landmarks, which are often used as promotional materials for tourist campaigns and postcards. His use of perspective and composition gives his work an added flair, making it highly sought-after even today. His illustrations have been featured in numerous books, magazines, newspapers, and advertising campaigns, making him one of the most influential British illustrators of the past few decades. Andy Smith’s artwork is highly respected in the art world, and his timeless illustrations are admired by millions.

Andy Smith, British Illustrator, Illustration, Tower Bridge, London, Perspective, Composition

Claudia Rossetti

Art In Egypt

Art in Egypt has a rich and diverse history that spans over thousands of years. It is a reflection of the country's culture, religion, and politics, and has been studied and admired by scholars and enthusiasts alike. From the Pre-Dynastic period to the Late Period and Ptolemaic Period, art in Egypt has evolved and adapted to the changing social and political landscape, while still maintaining its unique identity. One aspect of art in Egypt that has not been previously mentioned is the use of symbolism. Symbolism played a significant role in Egyptian art, with many of the symbols used having specific meanings and associations. For example, the scarab beetle was a symbol of rebirth and regeneration, while the lotus flower represented purity and resurrection. The use of symbolism was not limited to just religious art, but was also present in everyday objects such as jewelry and pottery. Another aspect of art in Egypt that is worth noting is the role of women in its production. Women played a significant role in the creation of art in Egypt, with many of the surviving pieces being attributed to female artists. This is in contrast to many other ancient civilizations where women were not given the same opportunities to express themselves artistically. Finally, it is important to note the impact that Egyptian art has had on the world. Its influence can be seen in the art of other ancient civilizations such as Greece and Rome, as well as in modern art movements such as Art Deco and Art Nouveau. The legacy of Egyptian art continues to inspire and captivate people all over the world.

Egypt, art, symbolism, women, influence

Matthew Robinson

Area Wells

Area Wells is a term used in architecture to describe an open space located within a building or structure. It is a form of sunken courtyard which is typically surrounded by walls and is intended to provide a space for quiet contemplation. It typically has a sloping surface, with a flat bottom, that allows for the collection of rainwater. In addition to providing a space for quiet reflection, area wells can also act as a visual link between the interior and exterior of a building. They can also be used to create a unique feature within a building's overall design.

Rainwater, Contemplation, Open Space, Visual Link, Sloping Surface.

Michael Adams

Adolfo Natalini

Adolfo Natalini, born in 1941 in Florence, Italy, is a celebrated Italian architect and artist. He is best known for his participation in the Florentine Superstudio, an architectural collective he co-founded in 1966. He is also recognized for his early experiments in radical architecture, including his work on the Modulo Casa and the Giraffe House projects. In the 1970s, Natalini began to combine his architectural studies and artistic practice in order to produce sculptural objects and installations. Working in the radically different media, he created avant-garde works that have become iconic in the history of contemporary Italian art. His later works have a strong political tinge, including his series of installations “The Unknown Political Prisoner” and “The Political Burial”. Today, Adolfo Natalini is a highly respected figure in the world of contemporary Italian art.

Adolfo Natalini, Italian artist, Florence, Superstudio, Modulo Casa, Giraffe House, political art.

Mei Wang

Art, Architecture And Design In Religion And Spirituality

Religion and spirituality have been a driving force behind some of the most magnificent works of art, architecture, and design throughout human history. From the intricate mosaics of Byzantine churches to the grandeur of Gothic cathedrals, religious art has been used to express the beliefs and values of various faiths. Artistic expression has also been used to create sacred spaces that inspire contemplation, meditation, and prayer. In many religious traditions, art has been used to depict stories and teachings from sacred texts. For example, Christian art often depicts scenes from the Bible, such as the Last Supper or the Crucifixion. Islamic art often features intricate calligraphy and geometric designs, which are used to convey the beauty and complexity of the Quran. Hindu art often depicts deities and scenes from Hindu mythology, such as the god Krishna playing his flute or the goddess Kali slaying demons. Architecture has also played a significant role in religious expression. Many of the world's most famous religious structures, such as the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul or the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, are architectural marvels that have become symbols of their respective faiths. These buildings often incorporate intricate details and symbolism that reflect the beliefs and values of the religious community that built them. Design has also been an important aspect of religious expression. From the ornate vestments worn by Catholic priests to the intricate henna patterns used in Islamic weddings, design has been used to create sacred objects and spaces that reflect the beauty and majesty of the divine. In summary, art, architecture, and design have played a significant role in religious and spiritual expression throughout human history. These creative expressions have been used to convey the beliefs and values of various faiths, create sacred spaces that inspire contemplation and prayer, and create sacred objects that reflect the beauty and majesty of the divine.

religion, spirituality, art, architecture, design

Brian Gonzalez

Acoustoelectric Effects

Acoustoelectric Effects are a powerful tool for designers and artists to explore interesting ways of combining sound and electricity. By taking advantage of this phenomenon, it is possible to create interactive installations that respond to sound input from the environment or from a specific sound source. Additionally, sound-based energy harvesting is a popular application of Acoustoelectric Effects, and can be used to power various devices. Furthermore, the effects can be used to create unique acoustic-electrical displays and sound-based sensors. The range of applications is vast, and designers are continuously finding new and creative ways to use Acoustoelectric Effects.

Acoustoelectric, Sound, Electricity, Piezoelectric, Magnetostriction.

Claudia Rossetti

Allen Russell Saalburg

Allen Russell Saalburg is a master of design, art, and creativity. His works are often detailed and expressive, but always imbued with a deep-seated humanity. His pieces often capture a moment of joy and emotion, as if he is giving life to the visuals. Saalburg's use of bright and vibrant colours is one of his most defining characteristics, and it is this skill that has earned him recognition in the art world. He is also known for his dedication to his craft, and his passion for creating beautiful works of art. His works have been featured in numerous galleries and museums around the world, and have been celebrated for their beauty and deeper meaning. He is a true master of his craft, and his works are an inspiration to designers and artists alike.

Allen Russell Saalburg, artist, painter, designer, creativity, art, design, expression.

Federica Costa

Albanian Architecture

Albanian architecture has been shaped by a unique combination of influences, including the country's location at the intersection of the Mediterranean and Central Europe, its numerous conquerors, and its complex cultural heritage. From the 15th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire had a profound impact on Albanian architecture, introducing a variety of Islamic styles and techniques, including the use of domes, minarets, and courtyards. In addition, the country's powerful Orthodox Christian and Catholic communities left a lasting mark, with many churches and monasteries being constructed in the Byzantine and Gothic styles. During the 19th century, Albanian architecture was strongly influenced by the Classical Revival, with many examples of Neoclassical and Baroque buildings being constructed in cities such as Tirana and Shkodra. In the 20th century, Albania's socialist government encouraged the development of Modernist and Brutalist architecture, with the work of renowned architects such as Andrea Palladio and Mario Botta being particularly influential.

Orientalism, Medieval, Ottoman, Byzantine, Gothic.

Beatrice Marino

About the Design+Encyclopedia
The free encyclopedia on good design, art, architecture, creativity, engineering and innovation.

Design+Encyclopedia is a free online encyclopedia, pioneering freedom of speech and freedom of expression in arts, design, architecture, creativity, engineering and innovation, written and maintained by a community of design professionals, architects, artists, creators, innovators and engineers. In Design+Encyclopedia, every individual contribution is cherished, differentiated opinions and distinct ideas are respected and attributed. Anyone can edit and contribute to the Design+Encyclopedia. Become a contributor now and help us expand existing definitions with your own. The Design+Encyclopedia is open to all objective facts as well as highly subjective ideas, opinions and perspectives on everything related to design, art, architecture, creativity, engineering and innovation. Create a free account now to join our community. We have 178.961 Topics and 427.322 Entries and we are looking forward to publish your entries today.