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Atman is a Sanskrit term that can be classified as a noun. In its original context, it is used to refer to a person’s essential self, spirit, or soul. It is derived from the stem of an ancient Indo-European root word and is rooted in the Proto-Indo-European language, therefore having cognates across many related languages. To express Atman in its various forms, one could use various synonyms such as soul, spirit, self, essence, the inner self, true nature, the divine self, inner being, inner consciousness, or the Universal Self. Alternatively, one could employ antonyms such as temporary self, illusory self, ego, or life form. In any case, its variants are generally considered to be Atman, Atma, and Atman.

Morphosyntax, Semantics, Etymology, Sanskrit, Linguistics

George Adrian Postea


The Sanskrit word Atman has had a long journey of linguistic and cultural evolution, from its original Vedic form to its contemporary usage. Derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *s(w)e-, meaning ‘One’, it is a common noun that is used to designate “soul, self, spirit”, among other meanings. Morphologically, it is an abstract noun that combines the base syllables, “at” and “man”, both of which are derived from the same root as, “at” meaning ‘to go’, and, “man” meaning ‘to think’. This indicates that the word, Atman, carries the connotation of ‘one who goes to think’, which could be said to represent the soul’s journey to its inner knowledge. Pragmatically, Atman is often used to refer to a universal consciousness shared by all living beings, and is considered an essential part of Hindu and Buddhist teachings. Therefore, the word Atman holds a deeply spiritual significance, which has been carried down through the millennia.

Etymology, Morphology, Vedic, Sanskrit, Proto-Indo-European, Consciousness

Henry Fontaine


Atman is a term used in Hinduism and Buddhism to refer to the individual soul of each living being. Specifically, Atman is the central principle of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophical thought, and the true self at the core of the individual’s existence. Equivalent words of Atman in other languages include Brahman, jiva, purusha, taiji, and pudgala. In Chinese, Atman is Shèntǐ, in Japanese it is Shintai, in Russian it is Atma, in Persian it is Jân, and in Arabic it is Nafs or Ruh. In Greek, Atman is translated as Psyche, in Latin as Anima or Mens, in German as Geist, and in Hebrew as Neshamah. In Tibetan, it is Thugs-rje, in Pali as Atta, in Sanskrit as Atman, and in Sinhalese as Atma. Equivalent words for Atman in other languages also include Prakriti, Jivatman, Vishwa, and Paramatman.

Atman, Brahman, jiva, purusha, taiji, pudgala, Shèntǐ, Shintai, Atma, Jân, Nafs, Ruh, Psyche, Anima, Mens, Geist, Neshamah, Thugs-rje, Atta, Prakriti, Jivatman, Vishwa, Paramatman

Harris Awan


Atman is a fashion label created by the designer David Last in 1989. It is considered a cutting-edge fashion brand, using modern materials and technology to create sophisticated, stylish and innovative clothing. Atman has gained a worldwide following and has become known for its bold and sculptural pieces, such as its signature asymmetric-cut jackets and statement coats. The label has received rave reviews from many influential figures in fashion, with its designs seen on celebrities and magazine covers. Atman's unique aesthetic has become a popular choice for fashion-forward individuals looking for a look that stands out from the crowd.

Atman fashion, David Last, clothing, asymmetric-cut, statement coats.

Olga Ivanova

CITATION : "Olga Ivanova. 'Atman.' Design+Encyclopedia. (Accessed on March 25, 2023)"

Atman Definition
Atman on Design+Encyclopedia

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